• The solution should evolve from the particular aspects of each project.

  • There should be no externally applied geometric or abstract design determinants.

  • Each element of the architectural design should be free to develop irrespective of the aesthetics of the other elements.

  • Aesthetics would be a Sculptural Flow evolving from the project's functional and expressive aspects.

Sprayed Concrete is an incredible method of construction for creative architecture. The most important aspect of its use, in the process of actualizing an architectural design, is that the "Form Facilitates Structural Strength." The concrete "shell" derives its structural properties from its curved form. In this way, it facilitates the use of free-flowing spaces and curvilinear forms, without the structural and aesthetic limitations imposed by the use of standard structural systems and natural materials.

It is my belief, however, that predetermined concrete structural shapes, per se, should not dictate the spaces and forms of the design solution. The structural shell aspect of sprayed concrete construction actually allows the architect the ability to create forms and spaces with an immeasurable degree of design freedom. This freedom should be used to create environments and aesthetics that are that much more creative in response to the functional and aesthetic aspects unique to each individual project.

Neither do I think that the concrete spray, itself, should be left as the finished surface. It should be considered nothing more than a blank canvas to which an appropriate combination of colors and textures can be applied to create the final aesthetic effect. So just as the use of sprayed concrete facilitates a greater freedom in creating spaces and forms, as "nothing but a blank canvas," it also facilitates an immense potential for unique aesthetic effects.

By using sprayed concrete, it was my design objective to create residential designs that incorporated unique, freeform living environments that were appropriate to the client's life-style and personal preferences. For that purpose, a design format of spaces, forms, colors, and textures would be developed specifically for each individual client.

My design procedure began with a conceptual layout of rooms and/or spaces that was responsive to the client's functional needs and wishes. Then, it was my belief that the aesthetics and aesthetic atmosphere of each room or space should be independently developed based upon its particular function and desired atmosphere. As each room or space would have different functional criteria and appropriate aesthetic atmospheres, each room or space would be free to develop in a way that was irrespective of the aesthetics and aesthetic atmospheres of other rooms or spaces.

After each room/space was designed in this manner, they were connected in accordance with the initial layout. The transitions from one room/space to another would also to be given aesthetic consideration.

Then, and only then, was the Exterior Aesthetics developed. These aesthetics were to be primarily an expression of the client and his wishes. Secondly, they were to be an aesthetic response to the site and its surroundings. As such, the criteria for the exterior aesthetics was not the same as that of the interior aesthetics. Therefore, just as each room/space would be designed irrespective of the other rooms/spaces, the exterior was to be designed irrespective of the interior design. This did not mean that there would not be aesthetic interrelationship between all of these independent elements, only that they would not be forced to aesthetically conform to "inorganic" determinants.

Another aspect of using sprayed concrete for the exterior aesthetics is the manner in which it can express the characteristics of the project's site. With sprayed concrete, a new aesthetic reality is achievable in responding to these aesthetics. Rather than duplicating those elements, an abstract palette of forms, colors, and textures, using sprayed concrete would not only allow the architect to aesthetically connect to and be responsive to it, but would also enable him to aesthetically transcend it. The point being is that new aesthetic freedoms would now be possible to express the architecture's relationship to its environment.

As far I am concerned, a virtually unlimited vernacular of creative aesthetics is possible using the sprayed concrete method of construction. As new technologies develop to increase the quality of its use, it could easily become the predominant construction method used by architects striving to create highly unique designs.


  • My aesthetics are freeform and sculptural, with the intent of a wild, exotic, and exuberant expression of each project's unique characteristics.

  • Each project would have an individual aesthetic vernacular that would literally transcend its functional considerations.

These are examples of my aesthetic intent:

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